How old is the Earth? This question is important to evolutionists and creationists alike and perhaps it is of interest to you. Most evolutionary geologists claim that the Earth is 4.6 billion years old. Most creationists claim that the Earth is less than 10,000 years old. How are these dates arrived at and can either of them be supported strongly? In the following pages we will examine these questions.
Let’s begin our examination by considering the evolutionary view, which is that the Earth is 4.6 billion years old. How do evolutionary geologists go about dating rocks and fossils? Their dates are based upon what they call relative time and absolute time. Relative time relates to a widely accepted time table known as the geologic time scale. This time scale organizes the layers of the earth’s rock into time periods with dates for each layer. For example, if a Brontosaurus bone is found in the earth a paleontologist will look at the geologic time scale and will read that dinosaurs lived in the Jurassic Period, 144-208 million years ago. He will accept this time period as a relative date for the Brontosaurus bone. It has already been decided that this era (Jurassic) was between 144-208 million years ago, and thus the fossil is relatively dated.
This Jurassic fossil now has a date. This theory and method is explained by Nancy E. Spaulding and Samuel Namowitz; “The geologic timetable … is a summary of the major events of Earth’s history preserved in the rock record. Fossils are an important part of that history. In fact, many of the rock layers have been identified and matched based on the fossils in them.” 1 Our question becomes: Isn’t relative time dating based upon circular logic? With this method, rocks are dated based on the accepted age of the fossils they contain and fossils are dated according to the accepted date of the rocks that they are in. 3 With relative time, this circle of fossils and rocks goes round and round, each dating the other. Because of this circle of logic I do not trust this dating method.
While relative time involves circularity, it is not the only method of dating rocks and fossils. It is, however, the most widely used form of dating. Our second method, absolute time, employs the use of radiometric dating. Radioactive elements in rocks decay over time. Radiometric dating attempts to measure this decay. There is more than one type of radiometric dating. For example, uranium-lead dating measures the decay of uranium into lead. It is estimated that it takes 4.5 billion years for a rock to have half of its uranium decay. It is estimated that it takes 14.1 billion years for half of a rock’s thorium to decay into lead. It is estimated that it takes 1.3 billion years for half of a rock’s potassium to decay into argon. 4 The decay of samarium (supposed half-life of 106 billion years) into neodymium and the decay of rubidium (supposed half-life of 49 billion years) into strontium is also measured and the results used in dating methods.
Radiometric methods of dating rocks and fossils do, however, have certain problems. Let’s consider some of them. For one, no one knows how much radioactive material a rock had at its time of formation (unless the rock has freshly solidified from its molten state). This is crucial information in determining how much radioactive material has decayed. Imagine, for example, that you were making the claim that a thief reached into your pocket and stole three quarters. Then, we ask you, “How many quarters did you have to begin with?” If you did not know, it becomes hard to maintain that you have lost three quarters. You would be estimating how many quarters you had to begin with. Likewise, radiometric dating begins with estimations.
As well as not knowing how much radioactive material a rock once had, we do not know how much radioactive material has entered a rock over the years. Rocks are a part ofan open system, that is, they have elements passing in and out of them. Studies have been done that show that argon, from the mantle of the earth, is reintroduced into rocks. 5 The problem is that we don’t know how much argon that is in a rock has entered in this way.
As well as not knowing how much radioactive material has been introduced into a rock, we do not know how much of a rock’s elements have been lost through processes other than gradual decomposition. Heat plays a factor in the composition of rocks. For example, studies done by Dalrymple and Moore on Kilauea submarine basalt (in Hawaii) showed that the surface layer had forty times more excess argon than the basalt rock just ten centimetres below it. 6 What accounts for this dramatic difference in argon levels? The surface basalt, having contact with the ocean above it, cooled rapidly from its molten state, retaining most of its argon. The deeper basalt rock cooled more gradually and much of the argon was burned off. Dalrymple and Moore also discovered that basalt argon levels became higher the deeper the water level.7 So, we learn that argon levels in rocks are affected by both temperature and water pressure.
These argon levels are not only affected by temperature at the time of a rocks first cooling, but also during metamorphism, the chemical or physical alteration of rock through pressure and temperature. So, again, we see that heat affects the argon levels, potentially resetting the radiologic clock. 8, 9
Argon levels are not only affected by heat. They are also affected by chemical weathering, mechanical weathering, radiation damage, shock waves and solutions.10 Therefore, radiologic dating depends on rocks being in an environment where they neither gain nor lose radioactive material in these ways. According to E. M. Durrance, “Geological materials and environments do not often meet this requirement.” 11 Geologist A. P. Dickins says that potassium-argon dates “are notoriously susceptible to argon loss …”12 Because of fluctuations in the argon content of rock, potassium-argon dating sometimes produces dates that conflict even with evolutionary dates for the age of the Earth. 13
Argon is not the only element that is affected by external influences. Studies on uranium in rock have shown that uranium levels vary in relation to the presence of ground water, the volume of circulating water and the chemistry of ground water around the rock. As well, uranium levels in rock are dramatically affected by the rock’s exposure to the surface environment. Granite from the Lankin Dome of the Granite Mountains batholith (in Wyoming) was found to have lost up to 90% of its uranium as a result of contact with near-surface environment.14 Again, consider how much a 90% loss in uranium levels would affect uranium-potassium dating methods on a rock.
As well as not knowing how much radioactive elements have been lost from a rock due to external influences, we also don’t know how much of a rock’s apparent daughter element existed in the rock at the time of its formation. A parent element is the original radioactive element (such as carbon-14, potassium, uranium, etc.) that exists, or existed, within a rock from the time of its formation.15 When a radioactive element fully decays, it becomes a new element and is called a daughter element (such as nitrogen, argon, lead, etc.). For example, a geologist may find both potassium and argon in a rock. Argon is a product of potassium. How does he know that some argon was not already present in the rock at the time of its formation? The element polonium-218 is considered to be a daughter element of uranium. Research from Dr. Robert Gentry, formerly from Oakridge National Laboratory, United States Dept. Of Energy, Atomic Energy Commission, has shown polonium radiohaloes in mica and fluorite that have no evidence of parent elements. In this case, the polonium is primordial, present in the original rock from the beginning. 16 If primordial elements are not excluded from geologists’ calculations, the ages that they arrive at will be erroneous.
As well as not knowing whether an element existed in a rock at the time of its formation, not requiring decomposition from a parent, we do not know for sure the rate of radioactive decay. Many scientists believe that radioactive elements decay at certain fixed rates. For example, Robert W. Christopherson, in his book, “Geosystems,” states; “Radioactivity provides the steady time clock needed to measure the age of ancient rocks. It works because the decay rates for different isotopes have been determined precisely, and they do not vary.”17 He admits that the validity of radioactive dating is dependent upon non-variance in radioactive decay rates, and asserts that these decay rates do not vary. However, this viewpoint is challenged by other data. Other scientists disagree that the decay rates don’t change. One scientific study, done in 1976, conducted by Hahn, Born and Kim, documents over two dozen experiments in which nuclear decay rates were changed by the chemical or physical environments of the decaying nuclei.18 More recently, in 1999, Huh and Kerr conducted a similar study with similar results.19 Studies done by O. Reifenschweiler, in 1994, showed as much as a forty-percent change in the nuclear decay rate of tritium.20 Dr. Gentry, mentioned above, has conducted extensive research on radioactive decay and has shown from his research that radioactive decay rates have changed in the past. Crystallized minerals leave minute concentric rings of discoloration called radiohaloes. Dr. Gentry observed variations in the measurement of ring diameters, revealing that decay rates have changed in the past.21 These scientists, and others, report the results of their research indicating changes in radioactive decay rates.
If decay rates have changed in the past, and if we don’t know how much radioactive material we began with, and if we don’t know how much radioactive material has been gained or lost through external influences, we would expect to find inaccuracies in dating rocks. Such inaccuracies have been found by dating rock that has freshly cooled from lava flows. Many studies have been done, assigning ancient ages to lava rock. For example, rock from a lava flow at Kilauea, Hawaii, yielded a potassium-argon date of 22 million years. We know that the eruption of this volcano was only 200 years ago. A volcanic eruption at Hual Al AJ, Hawaii, in 1800-1801, produced rock that yielded a potassium-argon date of 160 million to 3.3 billion years old.22 Great inaccuracies, such as these, should cause us to question the validity of radiometric dating.
Many geologists admit that radiometric dating does not always yield accurate results. Geologists also admit that these methods produce a variation of dates. Many respond, however, that this variation is not significant. If a rock is said to be 10 million years old, then it is considered acceptable, by many, to be a million years off in their calculations. Similarly, if a rock is believed to be 2 billion years old, it is acceptable, to many, to be 10 million years off. However, what shall we conclude if the variations in dates are in some cases dramatically greater than this? Dr. William D. Stansfield, professor from California Polytechnic State University, states:
It is obvious that radiometric techniques may not be the absolute dating methods that they are claimed to be. Age estimates on a given geological stratum by different radiometric methods are often quite different (sometimes by hundreds of millions of years). There is no absolutely reliable long-term radiological ‘clock.’23
So, we see from his comment that radiometric dating methods can produce a variety of dates. Cardenas basalt from the Grand Canyon was tested by several methods. Samarium-neodymium dating produced a date of 1.7 billion years old. Rubidium-strontium dating produced a date of 1.1 billion years old. Potassium-argon dating produced a date of 0.7 billion years old. In this case, samarium-neodymium and the potassium-argon methods produced dates one billion years apart.24 Robert E. Lee, in the Anthropological Journal of Canada, says:
No matter how “useful” it is, though, the radiocarbon method is still not capable of yielding accurate and reliable results. There are gross discrepancies, the chronology is uneven and relative, and the accepted dates are actually selected dates. 25
So, we see that to obtain these ancient dates, evolutionists rely on relative time and absolute time. A rock is said to be a million years old because it has been decided that the fossils within it are a million years old. The fossils within a rock are said to be a million years old because it has been decided that the rock in which they find themselves in is a million years old. Scientists who don’t wish to rely on relative dating employ radiometric dating. Scientists do not know how much radioactive material was present in a rock to begin with, nor do they know how much radioactive material has been reintroduced into that same rock. Neither do they know how much radioactive material has been lost as a result of heat, water pressure, chemical weathering, mechanical weathering, radiation damage, shock waves or solutions. Nor do they know how much of a supposed daughter element may have existed in a rock at the time of its formation. Lastly, they do not know for certain how radioactive decay rates may have changed in the rock they are testing. Yet, they make calculations and call these “absolute dates.” These absolute dates can vary hundreds of millions of years, or even one billion years, depending on the dating method used.
THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE
We said earlier that geologists have a timetable that proposes to lay out geologic history. This timetable is called a geologic time scale or column. This time scale, however, exists only in the minds of evolutionists and in our textbooks. What I mean by this statement is that there is no paleontological site anywhere on Earth where one can observe this complete time scale. Geologists often find gaps in the rock layers. We would expect that the Grand Canyon would be the best place to observe the geologic time column. However, the Grand Canyon is the best place to observe gaps in this record. For example, the rim of the Grand Canyon consists of Permian strata. The top five periods of the geologic time scale encompassing the entire Cenozoic and Mesozoic eras are missing from the Grand Canyon. This, supposedly, represents over 200 million years from which no sedimentary deposits can be seen. As we go deeper into the canyon, an observer will find that the Silurian and the Ordovician eras are also missing. 26 This, supposedly, represents almost 100 million years when no soil deposits can be observed. These missing layers are significant gaps in this record.
As geologists dig into the earth, not only do they find significant gaps, they also find rock strata in the wrong order. As they dig below surface rock, eventually they come to a crystalline type of rock which they call basement complex. This is believed to be older than the sedimentary rock above it. Instead of finding the complete, unbroken geological column, a geologist may find any rock system in the entire geologic column immediately on top of the basement complex. Above these layers, the higher layers may also be out of textbook order. Most geologists believe that this wrong order is a result of rock layers overthrusting each other. Whenever rock layers are out of order, or contain gaps in the geologic column, geologists call this unconformity. 27a
One well-known example of unconformity is a geologic site known as the Great Unconformity, found in the Grand Canyon.Two large rock layers rest upon each other, allegedly being a half a billion years apart. The Dox formation (the bottom layer) is said to be over 1 billion years old. The Tapeats sandstone above it is said to be half a billion years old.
The Great Unconformity is not the only unconformity studied by geologists. As they study the Earth, they find tremendous unconformity on a massive scale. For example, in Wyoming, near Yellowstone National Park, there is an area of Paleozoic stratum that is 30 miles wide and 60 miles long. It is resting on Eocene beds from the Tertiary period. This huge expanse of the top layer is said to be a quarter of a billion years older than the rock on which it sits. Even a greater unconformity is in a region of pre-Cambrian stratum of the Lewis Mountain Range (Montana). This section of stratum is 350 miles wide and is sitting on top of a Cretaceous stratum. In this case, the top stratum is supposedly 400 million years older than the stratum on which it rests. These examples are significant cases of unconformity. 27b
Evolutionists believe that examples of unconformity like these, and others, are the result of rocks shifting positions. In some cases, this explanation is held in spite of missing evidence that would indicate the breaking and shifting of rock. Consider the following quote from a Canadian Government report on an area of Alberta near Banff:
East of the main divide the lower Carboniferous is overlaid in places by beds of lower Cretaceous age, and here again, although the two formations differ so widely in respect to age, one overlies the other without any perceptible break, and the separation of the one from the other is rendered more difficult by the fact that the upper beds of the Carboniferous are lithologically almost precisely like those of the Cretaceous (above them). Were it not for the fossil evidence, one would naturally suppose that a single formation was being dealt with.28
So, we see from this example of unconformity that there is no perceptible break between these two strata of rock. If one were to interpret this rock formation without a preconceived geologic time scale division in mind, he would come to the conclusion that this is a single rock formation.
As well, fossils within the Earth’s rock layer also raise many questions. For example, we would expect to find within the fossil record a gradual progression of species beginning with simple organisms evolving their way up the geologic time column into complex organisms. However, what do we find? In pre-Cambrian rock we find almost entirely single-celled organisms. This time period is believed to represent over 4 billion years. Then we find an explosion of life in the remaining 570 million years of the Cambrian period. If both the geological time scale and the theory of evolution are accurate, then why did it take so long for life to evolve beyond single-celled organisms? These significant time discrepancies are hard to reconcile.
Such time discrepancies beckon us to reconsider both the geologic time scale and evolution in general. Remember, when we dig into the earth, we do not find an unbroken text-book picture of the geologic time scale. Instead, we find gaps and unconformity on a massive scale. Evolutionist Richard Fortey admits:
As Darwin was well aware, the rocks seem to betray many gaps and holes in the record. Somehow the ancestor hardly ever seems to be sitting there, where it should, in the rocks immediately below the descendant species. Sometimes a species which looks in most of its features as if it should be ancestral to a whole group of animals turns up in surprisingly young strata. 29
The geologic time scale can only, really, be found in the minds of evolutionists and in our textbooks. It is, in the words of Professor A. E. J. Engel of the California Institute of Technology, “imaginative manipulation”:
No more than one percent or so of the history of the earth is decipherable. But that one percent is dispersed through a series of events or episodes, extending back through geologic time. By imaginative manipulation of the evolving data we can reconstruct a magnificent and awesome history of the earth and its life…30
THE GRAND CANYON
There is probably not another geological site so spectacular as theGrand Canyon. It comprises an area of a quarter million square miles. What does the Grand Canyon tell us about the age of the Earth? The traditional theory behind the formation of this canyon is that the Colorado River gradually eroded it over a period of 70 million years. Before the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam, the sediment load 31 of the Colorado River was carefully measured over a 25-year period. It was discovered that the Colorado River’s sediment load averaged 168 million tons per year. This worked out to 500,000 tons of sediment per day. Seventy million years is a long period of time for any river to be eroding this much sediment. One hundred and sixty-eight million tons per year multiplied by 70 million years is 11.8 million billion tons of sediment that was allegedly eroded from the canyon. Although the Grand Canyon is extremely large, 11.8 million billion tons of sediment would fill an area 1,500 times that of the Grand Canyon. This much sediment could spread over 1.3 million cubic miles. Such a deposit of sediment should be very easy to find. However, studies of the Colorado River delta have not revealed nearly this much sediment.32
Having shown that the amount of sediment at the mouth of the Grand Canyon mismatches the 70-million-year theory, let’s consider how deep a canyon the Colorado River would carve over the same period of time. We said earlier that 168 million tons of sediment load was transported each year. This mass of gravel, sand, silt and clay is equivalent to 0.015 cubic miles per year. The amount, 0.015 cubic miles, multiplied by 70 million years, equals 1 million cubic miles. The drainage basin of the Colorado River below the Grand Canyon is 137,800 square miles. The depth of the canyon should therefore be calculated as 1 million cubic miles divided by 137,800 square miles, equalling 7.3 miles. Although the Grand Canyon has depths of 1 mile, at no point is it 7 miles. If the Grand Canyon is 70 million years old, then we have a significant mismatch of data. 33
What does petroleum tell us about the age of the Earth? Petroleum and natural gas are contained beneath the surface of the Earth at high pressures in reservoirs sealed by relatively impermeable cap rock. Studies have been done to measure the impermeability of cap rock. It has been calculated that, in many cases, gas pressures could not be maintained for much more than 10 thousand years. It is not realistic, then, that these pressures could be maintained for millions, or even billions, of years. 34
Along the ocean floor small mountain chains, known as mid-oceanic ridges, can be seen. These are points at which lava is brought to the surface. As magma hardens, it solidifies in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at that time. Instruments measuring magnetism have followed these ridges and have detected bands of alternating magnetic direction. These bands form what are commonly called a “zebra-stripe pattern.” It has been believed by those in this field of study that this reverse in magnetism has happened many times, gradually, over millions of years. However, according to the research of Dr. John Baumgardner, from the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, “…there is no reason why the magnetic field can’t reverse rapidly. Moreover, there is field evidence that it has reversed rapidly, within weeks.” 35
It is commonly believed, and taught, that sedimentary rock forms over many thousands, or even millions, of years. Do we have examples of rapidly-forming sedimentary rock? Rocks that contain fossils are probably the best examples of rapidly-forming rock. When an organism dies, it decomposes quickly. How, then, do we explain perfectly preserved fossils embedded in rock where even minute, soft, body parts have not suffered decomposition? A logical explanation would be that fossilization happens quickly. One geologist, describing a fossil fish from the Santana Formation in north-east Brazil, commented on this rock saying that lithification happened right away and that it may have been the reason for the fish having died. 38
As well as fossils testifying to rapid rock formation, rock from the bottom of the ocean presents similar evidence. Some metal bells, encased in rock, were discovered off the coast of Victoria, Australia. It was determined that the bells came from a wooden sailing ship, named Isabella Watson, which sank in 1852. The rock that encases the bells did not take thousands of years to form. The rock is little more than 150 years old. 39
Not only did the Isabella Bell rock form rapidly, but drip-stone rocks provide a third example of rapidly-forming rock. Stalagmites are drip-stone rocks that are formed in caves by mineral-rich water dripping from the ceiling of the caves, depositing minerals which eventually form pointed rocks.40 This is commonly believed to take many thousands, even hundreds of thousands, of years. 41 However, a large stalagmite was found in an abandoned gold mine tunnel in New South Wales, Australia. This gold mine dates back no earlier than 1851, evidencing the rapid formation of stalagmite rock.42 Fossil rock, the Isabella Bell rock, and stalagmites all testify to much shorter time requirements for the formation of rock.
Evolutionists believe that mankind has been alive on Earth for at least a million years. Dr. Henry Morris has done studies on population growth and has concluded that even with a dramatically conservative population increase of a half percent a year, spread over a million years, the Earth’s population would exceed 10 to the 2100th power. That’s a 10 with 2100 zeros behind it! There is not enough room in the universe, let alone on our planet, to contain this number of people. Keep in mind that this only accounts for the population of one species, human beings. All other animals would be multiplying throughout this time as well, many of them pre-dating human beings. Interestingly enough, according to these same calculations, our present population would be reached in a mere 4,000 years.43
So, we have seen geological formations that were previously thought to have taken long periods of time to form, forming rapidly. Rock encasing the bells of Isabella Watson, along with stalagmites, has formed rapidly. Likewise, the magnetic zebra stripes along oceanic ridges do not require millions of years to change direction. While these geological formations don’t require long periods of time, other geological formations do not allowfor long periods of time. The Colorado River has not deposited 11.8 million billion tons of sediment, nor has it dug 7 miles into the Earth. Many petroleum sites would have bled off all of their pressure if they were more than 10 thousand years old. Lastly, the human population of our planet would exceed 10 to the 2100thpower if mankind was a million years old.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Our world, beginning with the atmosphere and extending to the earth below, was created by God. God formed it, as a choice of His will and a display of His power. After its initial forming, God created light. He called the light day and distinguished it from the darkness, which He called night. Next, God divided the waters that existed on the surface of the Earth from the waters that He now caused to exist in the firmament (atmosphere). God proceeded to gather the waters on the surface of the Earth so that dry land would appear. Next, God caused the Earth to bring forth grass, herbs and trees. Next, God created the sun, moon and stars. After this, God caused the seas to abound with living creatures and he created birds for the air. Next, God caused animal life to come forth on the Earth. God was pleased with all His creation, seeing that it was good. All of the birds, sea creatures and animals began reproducing each “after their kind,” (see verse 21) that is, birds reproducing birds, fish reproducing fish, and land animals reproducing other land animals of their own species (See Genesis 1).
Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. God blessed them; and God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.’
So it was, that God created the pinnacle of His creation, mankind, and placed him in charge of the other living things that God had made. God formed man out of the dust of the ground and breathed into him the breath of life “… and man became a living being.” (Genesis 2.7). All these events happened in six literal days, and on the seventh day God rested from His labors.
God, having newly formed both man and woman, gave them a very important commandment. In the garden that God created for them, they were permitted to eat the fruit of any tree except of one particular tree, known as, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Should they disobey God and eat the fruit of this tree, God declared that “… you will surely die.’” (Genesis 2.17).
The woman and man could have chosen a path of obedience to God, a path where they would remain in harmony with God, with themselves and with each other. Foolishly, they chose to break the commandment, despite God’s warning. God came looking for them and they tried to hide from Him. God, knowing already what had happened, asked them the question; “…Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?’” (Genesis 3.11). They admitted to doing so, and God pronounced a judgment upon them (Genesis 3). They died spiritually, losing their ability to commune with God. Also, the process of death (aging) began in their physical bodies. The innocent man had now become a sinful man and began reproducing after his kind.
As the human population began rapidly multiplying upon the Earth, sin and evil began to multiply rapidly as well. We read:
Then the Lordsaw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. The Lordwas sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. The Lordsaid, ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.’
The LORD saw mankind’s actions and, beyond their outward actions, also into the thoughts of their hearts. Mankind’s thoughts were continuously evil. This pained the heart of God so greatly that He regretted creating man. God made the decision that He would need to destroy man before the situation worsened further. However, there was one just man, named Noah, who walked with God. God informed Noah of what He was about to do, and instructed him to construct an ark (large vessel) to hold his family and two of every kind of animal, and seven of certain kinds of animals. The Bible tells us that Noah was “ … a preacher of righteousness, … ” (2 Peter 2.5). Noah warned the people of his day about their ungodly ways and about their need to turn to God. In the years that it took Noah and his family to construct the ark, the opportunity was there for society to repent and turn to God. However, Noah’s message was ignored and likely mocked. The ark was constructed, the animals were gathered and, at God’s appointed time, Noah and his family were commanded to enter the ark. God shut the door of this great vessel. The Bible tells us that “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.” (Genesis 7.11-12). Great reservoirs of pressurized water from below the Earth’s crust powerfully burst through the surface of the Earth. As well, water from the atmosphere began falling to the Earth in the form of rain, continuing for forty days and forty nights. With this great and continuous influx of water, the sea levels began to rise, eventually covering all land. This is evidenced by the discovery of ocean-creature fossils at high elevations. Fossilized sponges, brachiopods, and coral have been found on the rim of the Grand Canyon, 7000 feet above sea level. 44 This proves that ocean waters covered this area. We read further:
Then the flood came upon the earth for forty days, and the water increased and lifted up the ark, so that it rose above the earth. The water prevailed and increased greatly upon the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. The water prevailed more and more upon the earth, so that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered. The water prevailed fifteen cubits higher, and the mountains were covered. All flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth, and all mankind; of all that was on the dry land, all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, died. Thus He blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky, and they were blotted out from the earth; and only Noah was left, together with those that were with him in the ark.
As colossal flood waves began sweeping over all land, valleys were filled and mountains levelled. This fast-moving, massive volume of water devastated and catastrophically reshaped every land form that it struck and rose above. Living creatures from lizards to foxes, to oxen, to humans, were drowned by water and buried beneath the rapidly moving sediments. More mobile animals would have been able to temporarily flee to higher elevations. Consequently, they were the last to be covered by water and sediments and their bones are found at higher elevations of rock layer than less mobile creatures such as snails or snakes. Turbulent waters serve as a highly effective sorting agent. Dr. Henry Morris explains:
This sorting action is basically produced because the amount of hydrodynamic ‘lift and drag’ forces on immersed objects are directly related to the size and shape of the objects. The same applies, of course, to objects falling vertically through water, so that objects that are simpler in shape (and thus, supposedly more ‘primitive’) would tend to settle out of a decelerating flow more rapidly and be buried more deeply than would objects of complex geometry. This tendency would be further augmented by the fact that these simpler organisms (shells, for example) normally are of somewhat greater specific gravity than ‘higher’ organisms.45
So, we see that the evasive actions of more mobile organisms, plus water sorting action, prior to burial and fossilization, would organize creatures in the rock layers from less complex to more complex. However, there would also be very many exceptions to this order on account of some creatures being buried quickly, before escape or sorting action could occur. If the evolutionary model (of lower organisms evolving into higher organisms) is correct, then we would expect to find this same order with few or no exceptions. What we do find, however, as we dig into the earth, is this basic order with many exceptions. The evolutionists grapple with this dilemma by claiming that extensive over-thrusting of the Earth’s rock layers has occurred. However, their dilemma becomes more acute when fossils from one evolutionary age are found mixed in with fossils from another age. Whenever two fossils from different ages are found in the same rock stratum, palaeontologists call these anomalous fossils.46Anomalous fossils are not uncommon.Dr. Henry Morris comments; “All sorts of geologic structures can be found in all ages. Even coal and oil have been found in rock systems from almost every so-called geologic age.” 47
At God’s appointed time, the flood waters began to recede from the Earth. The ark rested on Mount Ararat and Noah, his family and the animals were released. God blessed Noah and his sons and instructed them to multiply and populate the Earth.
Noah’s descendants did not follow in his godly example and it wasn’t long before humanity, once again, was thoroughly corrupt. With every generation things continued to worsen and, instead of following God and His ways, “…every man did what was right in his own eyes.” (Judges 17.6).
The Bible teaches that “All unrighteousness is sin, …” (1 John 5.17). Jesus Christ further taught that “’For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed the evil thoughts, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride and foolishness. All these evil things proceed from within and defile the man.’” (Mark 7.21-23). Sin resides in the hearts of men and women, staining them and marking them as transgressors of God’s laws. When we are in this condition, we become self-centred and self-driven. We are on a pursuit to obtain more for self. Ironically, the path to self-gratification is also the path to self-destruction.
The Bible warns of being “… hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.” (Hebrews 3.13). Sin not only stains and marks us, it hardens us, so that we can walk further down its pathway. The person in this condition is capable of all things vile and abusive. Jesus also said; “…‘Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is the slave of sin. ” (John 8.34). The participant in sin becomes the slave of sin. Slavery to sin is the worst kind of slavery. Stained and marked, the slave continues down his path, becoming more hardened. If he is not reconciled to God before his death, at the point of his death, he is taken to a place of judgment that the Bible calls hell.
God, seeing mankind, and each of us, personally, in this condition, was moved with compassion and determined to do something about the situation. His solution came in the form of a person, His Own Son, Jesus Christ.
The Bible teaches that in the past God spoke to people through His prophets. In these last days, He has spoken to us by His Own Son (see Hebrews 1.1-2). Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Before His birth, an angel appeared to His mother, Mary, saying:
And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end.’ Mary said to the angel, ‘How can this be, since I am a virgin?’ The angel answered and said to her, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.
Titles for this holy Child would be “the Son of the Most High” and “the Son of God.”
At the time of Jesus’ baptism, the Bible records that the heavens were opened to Jesus and He saw the Spirit of God descending upon Him. Suddenly, there came a voice from heaven saying; “…’This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.’” (Matthew 3.17). Jesus Christ frequently referred to God as His Father. On one occasion, having miraculously saved His disciples from a fierce storm, they turned to Him in amazement, saying; “…’You are certainly God’s Son!’” (Matthew 14.33).
HE HAD NO SIN
As well as being the Son of God, Jesus Christ had no sin. He was innocent and clean of any and every offence that you and I have committed. The Scripture refers to Him as the One “whocommitted no sin, nor was any deceit found in His mouth;” (1 Peter 2.22). The Scripture also says that “… in Him there is no sin.” (1 John 3.5).
HE DIED FOR US
For Christ also died for sins once for all, thejust for theunjust, so that He might bring us to God, …
Jesus Christ healed the sick, cast out demons and taught people. However, He had a greater purpose in coming to Earth than for any of these reasons. He came to save mankind from mankind’s greatest plight, slavery to sin and eternal judgment. Sinful mankind was still facing God’s judgment because God’s original commandment, in the garden of Eden, required death as a penalty for disobedience to Him. As well, all of our individual sins were stacking up and recorded as offences against God. God had declared; “Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die.” (Ezekiel 18.4). God’s solution to our plight is that of the sinless Jesus dying in our place, taking the penalty of death that He did not deserve, upon Himself. The Bible says; “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” (2 Corinthians 5.21).
In fulfillment of Scripture, Jesus Christ was betrayed by a friend and brought before a Roman governor. False charges were made against Him and He did not argue in His own defence. At the will of the angry crowd, He was sentenced to crucifixion. He was whipped, beaten and a crown of sharp thorns was placed upon His head. He carried a heavy cross for part of the distance to the place of execution. Nails were driven into His hands and feet, pinning Him to the jagged wood. As He suffered there, He heard the cry of someone beside Him; “… ‘Jesus, remember me when You come in Your kingdom!’” (Luke 23.42). It was a thief who was being crucified beside Jesus. In desperation, knowing he would die, this thief implored Christ’s mercy for his soul. Jesus spoke to him these words; “… ‘Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise.’” (Luke 23.43). Forgiven of his sins, the thief was now destined to spend eternity with Jesus. Darkness fell, and in His dying moments, Jesus cried out with a loud voice; “… ‘Father, INTO YOUR HANDS I COMMIT MY SPIRIT.’ … ” (Luke 23.46).
HE RESURRECTED FROM DEATH
Christ’s body was taken down from the cross and a certain man, Joseph from Arimathea, received permission to bury the body in his own tomb. The body was wrapped in a linen cloth and placed inside the tomb. The tomb was then firmly sealed by a large rock and a guard of soldiers was stationed outside of it. The reason for the soldiers being there was because Christ had prophesied that, after three days, He would resurrect from death. Although the authorities did not expect this to happen, they did suspect that Christ’s disciples might try to steal the body.
On the third day this Roman guard was met, not by the disciples, but by a mighty angel descending from heaven. The angel easily removed the stone and the guards, terrified beyond words, fled the scene. Out of the grave came the Lord Jesus Christ, triumphant over death. No power on earth, or in hell, could keep Him down or rob Him of His greatest victory. Word quickly began spreading throughout Jerusalem that Jesus Christ was alive, resurrected from the grave! (See John, Chapter 19 and Matthew, Chapters 27 and 28).
Jesus Christ is quoted in Revelation 1.18:
If Christ’s death was, therefore, on our behalf, to free us from sin and sin’s penalty and to restore us to fellowship with God, then how are we, personally, brought into this victory? At the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, He made this public statement; “… ‘The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel.’” (Mark 1.15). Jesus called for two things, repentance and belief in the gospel. What is repentance? Repentance is a decision, made by us, to turn from our own ways (sin) and follow Jesus Christ and His way. It is the opposite of self-gratification; it is self-denial in whatever area or areas Christ requires of us. We don’t have the ability within ourselves to reform ourselves and conform to God’s way. However, God will supply the ability for us to follow Him if we ask Him to forgive and save us, and if we repent by the ability that He supplies.
Jesus and His disciples carried this call to repentance far and wide. Scripture records that “They went out and preached that men should repent.” (Mark 6.12). God was serious when He first commanded mankind not to eat of the forbidden tree. He is serious also in His New Testament commands and “…, God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent,” (Acts 17.30). We also read:
Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have obtained our introduction by faith into this grace in which we stand; and we exult in hope of the glory of God.
Friend, you may have done many good things in your life. You may have given generously to others. You may have gone out of your way to help someone caught in a struggle. You may even be knowledgeable about religion, but God is looking for something specific from you and me. The Bible teaches; “And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.” (Hebrews 11.6). Jesus Christ spoke of a day when He would be coming back to Earth. Concerning that day, He asked this question; “…However, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on the earth?” ( Luke 18.8). Jesus Christ, when He returns, will be looking for faith. On another occasion, Jesus asked His disciples; “ … Do you still have no faith?’” (Mark 4.40). Friend, perhaps He would ask you the same question. Do you have faith? Maybe you are asking, “What is it that I am to have faith in?” Begin with the things which we have discussed. Firstly, realize that out of our hearts rise sinful things that mark, stain and defile us; that when we sin, we become transgressors of God’s laws, deserving of judgment. Next, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, that He has no sin of His own and that He died in our place, as our substitute, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God; because He resurrected from death, having victory over death, He can grant spiritual life to you and I. Lastly, know that He will forgive, change and save us, if we come to Him in repentance and faith. Having accepted these truths, we must put our faith in the person of Jesus Christ. How do we do this? Faith can be expressed in prayer. Call out to Him, asking for forgiveness for your sins; call out to Him, committing your life to follow Him. If we come to Jesus Christ in faith, He will receive us, as God’s child, purifying our hearts by faith (see Acts 15.9). The Bible tells us:
But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, evento those who believe in His name, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.
WE HAVE COME FULL CIRCLE
Remember the people who made up the society in which Noah lived. Remember how God’s heart was grieved because the thoughts of their hearts were “only evil continually.” Their hearts were stained and marked by sin. They were self-centred, racing down the path of self-gratification and self-destruction. The self-destruction came to their own souls and self-destruction became the destruction of their very lives, as God erased them from the earth in a world-wide flood. The generations that descended from Noah also followed this sinful path, ignoring God’s ways and “every man did what was right in his own eyes.” Generation after generation has followed this course, up until our present day.
Again, God’s heart is grieved. What can we expect will be His judgment upon ourselves? Jesus Christ spoke of a day in which He would come back to Earth. However, this time He would not be coming as a baby in a manger. This time He would be coming as the Judge of all the Earth. He called this time “the days of the Son of Man”. This is what He said specifically; “And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of Man: they were eating, they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all.” (Luke 17.26-27).
Here, Jesus was prophesying destruction upon the sinful generation that is alive at the time of His return. Jesus said further:
Be on guard, so that your hearts will not be weighted down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of life, and that day will not come on you suddenly like a trap; for it will come upon all those who dwell on the face of all the earth. But keep on the alert at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man.’
Noah’s generation had a “preacher of righteousness,” Noah, who warned them of their impending doom. They had a preacher who pled with them to turn to God and His ways. It was only as the waters were rising upon them that they realized that they had deafened their ears to God’s call, and that repentance and faith would have granted them entrance into Noah’s ark. They were judged in a judgment of water. The unrepentant, who have no faith, at the time of His final coming, have been reserved for a judgment of fire.
DO NOT FORGET THIS ONE THING
The Apostle Peter writes in 2 Peter 3.1-13:
This is now, beloved, the second letter I am writing to you in which I am stirring up your sincere mind by way of reminder, that you should remember the words spoken beforehand by the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Savior spoken by your apostles. Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts, and saying, ‘Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation.’ For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water, through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. But by His word the present heavens and earth are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.
But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day. The Lord is not slow about His promise, as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance.
But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up.
Since all these things are to be destroyed in this way, what sort of people ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt with intense heat! But according to His promise we are looking for new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells.
Here we are told that, in the last days, scoffers will rise up, follow the pathway of sin, and mock the truth that Christ is returning to earth. It escapes the notice of these mockers that the heavens were created by the word of God. Perhaps they invented other theories to explain the world around them. Perhaps their theories were sophisticated and widely accepted, but they willfully forget the way it really was, a result of creation by God.
They also forget the judgment that fell upon Noah’s society. We are told to not forget this one thing: “But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day. The Lord is not slow about His promise, as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance.”
The Lord is not slow in returning but, rather, He is giving us time to repent. The long-suffering patience of a God Who is daily grieved at our countless departures from truth and righteousness is about to expire. We are living on repentance time. God does not want to see us perish but, rather, to see us repent.
Friend, do you remember Jesus’ words that we quoted earlier: “For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed the evil thoughts, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride and foolishness. All these evil things proceed from within and defile the man.”(Mark 7.21-23). How is it with your heart? Ask yourself. Are you stained or marked by sin? What path are you travelling?
Our sins not only grieve God, they cost the life of His Son upon the cross. Our pardon comes at a high price. The Just was sacrificed for the unjust, that we might be brought to God. The Bible says that God’s wisdom is not like ours. To some, the crucifixion of Christ is a stumbling block. To others, it is foolishness. God’s wisdom is sending Jesus Christ to die for your sins and mine. The crucified Christ resurrected and is victorious over death. How can you and I enter into this victory? How can we obtain victory over sin and death? We can do so by repentance and faith. The God Who created this world can recreate your heart, as well. Jesus heard the cry of the thief dying beside Him. He will hear your cry as well, made sincerely in prayer. Friend, won’t you call out to Him now?
If you feel you need help with the words, I offer this prayer:
Jesus Christ, my life has been stained and marked by my many sins. I bring my heart to You, and I ask You to forgive me for all the evil that I have done. Remove my sin completely. I believe that You are the Son of God and that You are without sin. I believe that You died for me on the cross and that You resurrected from death. I repent of following my own ways and I give my life entirely to You. By Your strength, help me to follow You from this day onward. Amen.
1. N. Spaulding and S. Namowitz, Heath Earth Science(Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1994), 598.
2. J. E. O’Rourke, “Pragmatism versus materialism in stratigraphy,” American Journal of Science Vol. 276 (January 1976): 53.
3. R. H. Rastall, Encyclopedia Britannica Vol. 10 (1956), 168.
4. R. W. Christopherson, Geosystems(Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall Inc., 2000), 309.
5. Dr. Larry Vardiman, et al, Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000), 11. (© 1994-2013 Institute for Creation Research. All Rights Reserved. www.icr.org)
6. Dr. Larry Vardiman, et al, Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000), 131.(© 1994-2013 Institute for Creation Research. All Rights Reserved. www.icr.org)131.
7. Dr. Larry Vardiman, et al, Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000), 131.(© 1994-2013 Institute for Creation Research. All Rights Reserved. www.icr.org)
8. Dr. Larry Vardiman, et al, Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000), 144.(© 1994-2013 Institute for Creation Research. All Rights Reserved. www.icr.org)
9. A similar study was done on metamorphic rock from the Front Range of Colorado. Rock that had undergone very minor mineralogical contact metamorphic effects experienced great alterations in their radiometric dates. Ibid., 154.
10. Ibid., 155.
11. E. M. Durrance, Radioactivity In Geology(Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Ltd., 1986), 441.
12. A. P. Dickins, “The North Atlantic Tertiary Province” (p. 111-149) inContinental Flood Basalts(The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988), 341.
13. I. McDougall and T. M. Harrison, Geochronology And Thermochronology By The 40Ar/39Ar Method(New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 212.
14. Dr. Larry Vardiman, et al, Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000), 160.
15. Parent element, Physics. An element that yields an isotope or daughter element through radioactive decay or nuclear bombardment. R. K. Barnhart, Dictionary of Science(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986), 472.
16. J. Melnick, The Case Of The Polonium Radiohaloes Vol. 5 No. 1 (Santa Barbara: Students For Origins Research, 1982), 4-5.
17. R. W. Christopherson, Geosystems, 309.
18. H. P. Hahn, H. J. Born and J. I. Kim, “Survey On The Rates Of Perturbation Of Nuclear Decay” Radiochimica Acta, 23,23-37, 1976.
19. C. A. Huh, “Dependence Of The Decay Rate Of 7Be On Chemical Forms,” Earth And Planetary Science Letters, 171, 325-328, 1999.
20. O. Reifenschweiler, “Reduced Radioactivity Of Tritium In Small Titanium Particles,” Physics Letters, A184,149-153, 1994.
21. “Origins,” The Earth, A Young Planet?Producer: Dr Wilder-Smith, Ph.D. Oxford University, Doctor of Science, University of Reading, Doctor of Science, University of London, F.R.I.C., University of Geneva (Mesa: Films For Christ, 1991). Videocassette.
22. “The Age Of The World,” Dr. Jonathan Sarfati (Florence: Answers In Genesis Ministries). Videocassette.
23. William D. Stansfield, Ph.D., The Science Of Evolution(New York: Macmillan, 1977), 84.
24. “Grand Canyon,” Monument To The Flood,Dr. Steven A. Austin, et al (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 1994). Videocassette.
25.Robert E. Lee, “Radiocarbon; ages in error”Anthropological Journal Of Canada Vol. 19 (3),1981, 9-29.
26. Wayne Jackson, The Mythology of Modern Geology (Stockton: Apologetics Press, Inc., 1980), 11.
27a.”Unconformity … a break in stratigraphic sequence.” McGraw-Hill Dictionary Of Scientific And Technical Terms,4thedition (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1989), 1994.
27b. Dr. Steven A. Austin, Grand Canyon Monument To Catastrophe (Santee: Institute For Creation Research), 1994.
28. The 1886 Canadian Government Report, quoted in Wayne Jackson, The Mythology of Modern Geology, 12.
29. R. Fortey, Fossils, The Key To The Past(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982), 124. First published by The British Museum (Natural History).
30. A. E. J. Engel, quoted in Wayne Jackson, The Mythology of Modern Geology, 11.
31. Sediment load. The solid material that is transported by a natural agent, especially by a stream. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific And Technical Terms(New York: McGraw-Hill Books Co. 1989), 1690.
32. Dr. Steven A. Austin, Grand Canyon Monument To Catastrophe(Santee: Institute For Creation Research, 1994), 87.
33. Dr. Steven A. Austin, Grand Canyon Monument To Catastrophe (Santee: Institute For Creation Research, 1994), 88.
34. Scott M. Huse, The Collapse Of Evolution(Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1993), 40.
35. Dr. John Baumgardner, “New Evidence for Extraordinary Rapid Change of the Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal” Nature 374: 687-692, April 20, 1995. Nature Publishing Group.
36. Dr. Melvin A. Cook, “Origins,” The Earth, A Young Planet?Producer: Dr Wilder-Smith, Ph.D. Oxford University, Doctor of Science, University of Reading, Doctor of Science, University of London, F.R.I.C., University of Geneva (Mesa: Films For Christ, 1991). Videocassette.
38. D.M. Martill, “The Medusa Effect: Instantaneous Fossilization,” Geology Today 5(1989): 201.
39. Dr. Don Batten, et al, “Rapid Rock Formation Rings True” Creation Magazine Vol. 20. No. 2.March-May (Ottawa: 1998): 6.
40. N. Spaulding and S. Namowitz, Heath Earth Science, 163.
41. E. Julius Dasch, Editor. MacMillan Encyclopedia Of Earth Science(New York: MacMillan Library Reference, 1996), 87.
42. Dr. Don Batten, et al, “‘Instant’ Stalagmites!” Creation Magazine Vol. 19. No. 4.September-November (Ottawa: 1997), 37.
43. Scott M. Huse, The Collapse Of Evolution, 44.
44. “Grand Canyon,” Monument To The Flood (El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 1994). Videocassette.
45. Dr. Henry M. Morris, The Biblical Basis For Modern Science (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House,1984), 329-330.
46. Ibid., 332.
47. Dr. Henry M. Morris, What Is Creation Science? (El Cajon: Master Books, 1987), 235. From What Is Creation Science? by Dr. Henry M. Morris, 1987; page 235. Used with permission from the publisher – New Leaf Publishing Group.
Austin, Dr. Steven A. Grand Canyon Monument To Catastrophe. Santee: Institute For Creation Research, 1994.
Austin, Dr. Steven A., et al. Producer. Grand Canyon Monument To The Flood. El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 1994. Videocassette.
Barnhart, R. K. Dictionary of Science. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1986.
Batten, Dr. Don, et al. “’Instant’ Stalagmites!” Creation Magazine Vol. 19 No. 4. Ottawa (Sept.-Nov. 1997).
Batten, Dr. Don, et al. “Rapid Rock Formation Rings True.” Creation Magazine Vol. 20 No. 2. Ottawa (March-May 1998).
Baumgardner, Dr. John. “New Evidence for Extraordinary Rapid Change of the Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal.” Nature 374 (April 20, 1995). Nature Publishing Group.
Beakhouse, G. P., et al. “Comparative Rb-Sr And U-Pb Zircon Geochronology Of Late- to Post-Tectonic Plutons In The Winnipeg River Belt, Northwestern Ontario, Canada.” Chemical Geology 72 (1988): 346.
Bowring, S. A. and T. Housh. “Response: Sm-Nd Isotopic Data And Earth’s Evolution.” Science 273 (1996): 1878-1879.
Chauvel, C., et al. “The Sm-Nd Age Of Kambalda Volcanics Is 500 Ma Too Old!” Earth And Planetary Science Letters 74 (1985): 315-324.
Christopherson, R. W. Geosystems. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall Inc., 2000.
Criss, R. E., et al. “Effects Of Regional Uplifts, Deformation, and Meteoric/Hydrothermal Metamorphism On Potassium-Argon Ages of Biotites In The Southern Half of The Idaho Batholith.” Journal Of Geophysical Research 87 (B8, 1982): 7029-7046.
Dasch, E. Julius. Editor. MacMillan Encyclopedia Of Earth Science. New York: MacMillan Library Reference, 1996.
Dickins, A. P. Radiogenic Isotope Geology. U. K., New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Dickins, A. P. “The North Atlantic Tertiary Province.” Continental Flood Basalts. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
Durrance, E. M. Radioactivity In Geology. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Ltd., 1986.
Ebihara, M., et al. “Chemical Composition And Potassium-Argon Ages Of Pliocene Volcanic Rocks Along Aimagawa River, Western Gunma, Central Japan.” Geochemical Journal (of Japan) 23 (1989): 149.
Fortey, R. Fossils, The Key To The Past. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982.
Gazis, C., et al. “Isotope Systematics Of Granites And Gneisses Of The Nanga Parmat Massif, Pakistan Himalaya.” American Journal Of Science 298 (1998): 694.
Grau, G., et al. “Anomalous Sm-Nd Ages For The Early Archean Onverwacht Group Volcanics.” Contributions To Mineralogy And Petrology 104 (1990): 27-34.
Hahn, H. P., H. J. Born and J. I. Kim. “Survey On The Rates Of Perturbation Of Nuclear Decay.” Radiochimica Acta 23 (1976): 23-37.
Hallam, A. “Jurassic To Paleocene: Part 1” The Chronology Of The Geological Record. Geological Society Of London Memoir 10, 1985: 118.
Hamilton, W. B. “Archean Tectonics And Magmatism.” International Geology Review 40 (1998): 694.
Harland, W. B., et al. A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Huh, C. A. “Dependence Of The Decay Rate Of 7Be On Chemical Forms.” Earth And Planetary Science Letters 171 (1999).
Huse, Scott M. The Collapse Of Evolution. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1993.
Jackson, Wayne. The Mythology of Modern Geology. Stockton: Apologetics Press, Inc., 1980.
Lee, Robert E. “Radiocarbon; ages in error.” Anthropological Journal Of Canada Vol. 19 (3) (1981).
Lo, C. H. and T. C. Onstott. “Rejuvenation Of Potassium-Argon Systems For Minerals In The Taiwan Mountain Belt.” Earth And Planetary Science Letters 131 (1995): 95, 96.
McDougall, I. and T. M. Harrison.Geochronology And Thermochronology By The 40Ar/39Ar Method. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary Of Scientific And Technical Terms 4thedition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1989.
Martill, D. M. “The Medusa Effect: Instantaneous Fossilization.” Geology Today 5 (1989).
Melnick, J. The Case Of The Polonium Radiohaloes Vol. 5. No. 1. Santa Barbara: Students For Origins Research, 1982.
Morozowa, I. M. “Inheritance Of Radiogenic Argon By Newly Formed Minerals During Gluaconite Transformation.” Transactions (Doklady) Of The Russian Academy Of Sciences: Earth Science Sections 344 (7, 1996): 52.
Morozowa, I. M. “Radiogenic Argon As An Indicator Of The Inheritance Of Material During Glauconite Hydrothermal Transformations.” Geochemistry International 35 (8, 1997): 716.
Morris, Dr. Henry M. The Biblical Basis For Modern Science. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1984.
Morris, Dr. Henry M. What Is Creation Science? El Cajon: Master Books, 1987.
O’Rourke, E. “Pragmatism versus materialism in stratigraphy.” American Journal of Science Vol. 276. (1976): 53.
Pukhtel, I. S., et al. “Petrography And Sm-Nd Age Of A Differentiated Sheet Of Komatiitic Basalt In The Vetra Belt, Baltic Shield.” Geochemistry International 28 (1991): 14-23.
Rastall, R. H. Encyclopedia Britannica Vol. 10, 1956.
Reifenschweiler, O. “Reduced Radioactivity Of Tritium In Small Titanium Particles.” Physics Letters A184, (1994).
Richards, J. P. and I. McDougall. “Geochronology Of The Porgera Gold Deposit, Papua New Guinea: Resolving The Effects Of Excess Argon On K-Ar And 40Ar/39Ar Age Estimates For Magmatism And Mineralizion.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54 (1990): 1412.
Roddick, J. C. and M. L. Bevier. “U-Pb Dating Of Granites With Inherited Zircon.” Chemical Geology 119 (1995): 307.
Rublev, A. G. “The Possibility Of Correcting For Excess Argon In Potassium- Argon Dating.” Geochemistry International 22 (4, 1985): 73.
Sarfati, Dr. Jonathan. Producer. The Age Of The World. Florence: Answers In Genesis Ministries. Videocassette.
Shirey, S. B. “The Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Re-Os Isotopic Systems.” Applications Of Radiogenic Isotope Systems To Problems In Geology. Short Course Handbook Vol. 19. Heaman and Ludden, eds. (1991): 110.
Spaulding, N., and S. Namowitz. Heath Earth Science. Lexington: D. C. Heath & Co., 1994.
Stansfield, William D. Ph.d. The Science Of Evolution. New York: Macmillan, 1977.
Togashi, W., et al. “Trace Elements And Nd-Sr Isotopes Of Island Arc Tholeiites From Frontal Arc Of Northeast Japan.” Geochemical Journal (of Japan) 26 (1992): 261-277.
Toulkeridis, et al. “Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, And Pb-Pb Dating Of Silicic Carbonates From The Early Archaean Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa.” Precambrian Research92 (1998): 138.
Vardiman, Dr. Larry, et al. Radioisotopes And The Age Of The Earth. El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 2000.
Wallace, A. R. “Isotopic Geochronology Of The Leadville 1 x 2 Quadrangle, West-Central Colorado – Summary And Discussion.” U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2104 (1995): 6.
Dr. A. E. Wilder-Smith. Producer. Origins. The Earth, A Young Planet? Mesa: Films For Christ, 1991. Videocassette.
Woodmorappe, John, M.A. The Mythology Of Modern Dating Methods. El Cajon: Institute For Creation Research, 1999.
“Scripture quotations taken from the New American Standard Bible®,
Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973,
1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation
Used by permission.” (www.Lockman.org)